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USAID (Editor) (2013): Healthcare Waste. Sector Environmental Guidelines. Washington: United States Agency for International Development (USAID). URL [Accessed: 30.09.2013].

Currently, little or no management of healthcare wastes occurs in small-scale facilities in developing countries. Training and infrastructure are minimal. Common practice in urban areas is to dispose of healthcare waste along with the general solid waste or, in peri-urban and rural areas, to bury waste, without treatment. In some cities small hospitals may incinerate waste in dedicated on-site incinerators, but often fail to operate them properly. Unwanted pharmaceuticals and chemicals may be dumped into the local sanitation outlet, be it a sewage system, septic tank or latrine. The contamination of water sources represents serious health risks.