A high temperature oven used to thermally decompose an ore; usually limestone, but also magnesium carbonate.
California Water Environment Association
Founded in 1927, CWEA is a not-for-profit association of 9,000-plus professionals in the wastewater industry. They are committed to keeping California's water clean. They train and certify wastewater professionals, disseminate technical information, and promote sound policies to benefit society through protection and enhancement of the water environment. They offer services at the state level as well as locally, through the 17 geographical Local Sections. Synonyms: CWEA
Capillary water is held in pores that are small enough to hold water against gravity, but not so tightly that roots cannot absorb it. This water occurs as a film around soil particles and in the pores between them and is the main source of plant moisture. As this water is withdrawn, the larger pores drain first. The finer the pores, the more resistant they are to removal of water. As water is withdrawn, the film becomes thinner and harder to detach from the soil particles. This capillary water can move in all directions in response to suction and can move upwards through soil for up to two meters, the particles and pores of the soil acting like a wick.
The capillary zone is the area in the soil where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action. It is generally an intermediate zone in the vadose zone between the dry zone, above the groundwater table.
Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio
C/N expresses the ratio of dry available carbon to one part of dry available nitrogen. It is often expressed as a single number representing the carbon content. A balanced carbon - nitrogen ratio is relevant in aerobic (composting) and anaerobic digestion (biogas recovery). If the digestion process is hampered by a lack of carbon (low C/N ration) organic waste from households can be added. To prevent a lack of nitrogen one could add urine. Synonyms: C/N, C/N ratio, C:N, C:N ratio
Centralised (drinking) water supply refers to the centralised treatment and purification of water sources and subsequent distribution to different water users (households, industry, agriculture) through a large water distribution network. Synonyms: Centralised Water Supply
A cesspit, or cesspool is a tank pit used for the temporary collection and storage of sewage or waste. The pit is sometimes lined with bricks or concrete and mostly covered with a slab. In case the pit is constructed water-tight (in this case it is also called underground holding tank), it needs to be emptied frequently. When the pit is not tight, liquids leach out if soil conditions allow, while solids decay and collect in the base. The treatment effect of a cesspit is very low. Emptying can result in high operation and maintenance costs. Cesspits which allow soil infiltration require less frequent emptying but groundwater pollution can occur. Synonyms: Cess Pit, Cesspool, Underground Holding Tank
Channelling occurs, when a flow in a reactor does not follow the prospected flow schema, but directly flows from the inlet to the outlet without mixing with the rest of the reactor content. In water purification and treatment units, this results in a non-respect of the hydraulic retention time and in consequence insufficient treatment. Synonyms: Short-circuiting
A system with open ditches for the discharge of rainwater exist in most urbanised areas. The ditches usually drain-off rainwater into rivers or sometimes into agricultural irrigation canals. Unauthorised discharge of domestic waste into the system is quite common leading to surface water pollution and spreading of pathogens. However, where no wastewater infrastructure exists, drainage of wastewater through the system could be a possible temporary solution considering an appropriate treatment (e.g. waste stabilisation ponds, constructed wetlands) before reuse or discharge. In this case drains should be covered by concrete slabs to prevent blockages by litter and humans from getting in contact with their contents and rainwater should be allowed to enter the systems in periodic inlets.
Charcoal is a lightweight, black, porous material similar to coal. It consists of carbon (about 50 to 95 %) and volatile chemicals and ash. Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis, the heating of wood, sugar, bone char, or other substances in the absence of oxygen. It can also be produced by some enzymatic conversion of organic mater. The backbones of charcoal are polycondensed aromatic moieties which are chemically and biologically persistent. Charcoal is a valuable soil amendment (see also terra preta), retaining nutrients at their surface and improving the soil structure leading to enhanced water and air retention.
Chemical sedimentation is like normal sedimentation but coagulants are used in order to neutralise repelling surface charge of particles. Once these repelling surface charges are neutralised, the particles attach to each other forming clusters and flocs, which become heavier and therefore settle more easily to the bottom.
Cholera is an acute infection of the intestine, which begins suddenly with painless watery diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. Most people who become infected have very mild diarrhoea or symptom-free infection. Malnourished people in particular experience more severe symptoms. Severe cholera cases present with profuse diarrhoea and vomiting. Severe, untreated cholera can lead to rapid dehydration and death. If untreated, 50% of people with severe cholera will die, but prompt and adequate treatment reduces this to less than 1% of cases. Cholera outbreaks can occur sporadically in any part of the world where water supplies, sanitation, food safety and hygiene practices are inadequate. Overcrowded communities with poor sanitation and unsafe drinking-water supplies are most frequently affected.
This is an old irrigation system that has been modernised and reapplied in water scarce areas. It consists of using clay pots and porous capsules (see also pitcher irrigation) to improve irrigation practices by increasing storage and improving the distribution of water in the soil. Synonyms: Clay Pot Irrigation Network, Porous Capsule Irrigation Network
The Clean Development Mechanism allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (often, industrialised countries) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries. The former are hence able to buy emission reductions by achieving them in countries where it is cheaper to reduce greenhouse gas emissions – at the same times, they fund investments into clean technologies in developing countries.
Coagulants are chemicals used to enhance sedimentation. Coagulants neutralise surface charges of repelling particules, allowing them to approach, attach and form clusters. The clusters are larger in size and heavier and thus more easy to settle and remove from the water. See also coagulation or chemical sedimentation. Synonyms: Flocculant
Clumping of particles in liquids (e.g. drinking water and wastewater) to settle out impurities; it is often induced by chemicals such as lime, alum, and iron salts.
Coagulation and floculation describe the chemical process of contact and adhesion whereby the particles of a dispersion (colloids) form larger-size cluster (flocs or flakes) allowing them to be more easely removed from water (e.g. by settling). The coagulation-flocculation processes facilitate the removal of suspended and colloidal particles. It’s used in the first stage of solids-liquids separation: settling, flotation or filtration.
Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped, Gram-negative organisms, which ferment lactose and produce acids and aldehydes. The coliforms include Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter and may include Serratia and Edwardsiella. Coliforms are normally found in the aquatic environment and on vegetation but also in bodies and excreta. Therefore, they are also used as an indicator of faecal contamination of water. Synonyms: Coliforms
Colloidal silver are tiny silver particles suspended in liquids. They are used as disinfectant in ceramic filters, preventing bacterial growth and assisting inactivation of bacteria.
Combined Cycle Power Plant
A combined cycle is characteristic of a power producing engine or plant that employs more than one thermodynamic cycle. Heat engines are only able to use a portion of the energy their fuel generated (usually less than 50%). The remaining heat (e.g., hot exhaust fumes) from combustion is generally wasted. Combining two or more thermodynamic cycles, such as the Brayton cycle and Rankine cycle, results in improved overall efficiency. Synonyms: CCPP
Combined sewers collect blackwater, greywater and stormwaterrunoff in one ant the same single pipe system. Combined sewers provoke the pollution of little polluted water by mixing it with heavily polluted water. This particularly results in pollution when sewers overflow during heavy rain periods. As combined sewers need to be large, they can also be more expensive to install. Today, combined sewers are perceived as obsolete and in newer construction separated sewer systems are installed instead, although many systems remain combined as the replacement of an existing systems would be too expensive.
Command and Control Tools are direct regulations of requirements, bans and rules. With command and control tools, you only change the behaviour of people because they want to avoid penalties for non-compliance. People don't necessarily also change their values; that is also the reason why command and control tools only work when they can really be enforced, and when those who do not comply are actually charged.
The area of the spate irrigation scheme that can be irrigated (provided that water is available) and is fit for cultivation.
A community based organisation is a small organization that does not have the registered status of an NGO but is a structured group of volunteers who work together to achieve a common goal of the community. Anyone can start their own CBO. Synonyms: CBO, CBOs, Community Based Organization
A CCW is a small-scale constructed wetland, built individually for one household. It works in connection to a three chambered septic tank, from where blackwater flows from the last chamber, passing through the constructed wetland into an impounding basin. The basin accumulates the treated blackwater as well as grey water from the sink, laundry and bathroom plus storm water. Synonyms: CCW, CCW constructed wetland
Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Over Nitrite
In this composting method, the waste is put in piles on the ground and regularly turned to allow aeration. The size of the pile may vary depending on the amount of waste and available space, but generally, it should be 1 to 2 m on each side and not more than 1.5 m in height. Chicken wire or wooden planks can be used to keep the pile together.
One simple method for compostingorganic waste is to put it in pits and let it turn into compost over a period of six months or more. This process requires some space and time but the main benefit is that the waste is not visible as it is buried in the pit. Synonyms: Pit Composting
Condominial sewerage is the application of simplified sewerage coupled with consultations and ongoing interactions between users and agencies during planning and implementation. The term is used primarily in Latin America, particularly in Brazil, and is derived from the term condominio (housing block). Synonyms: Condominial Sewer System, Condominial Sewers, Simplified Sewers
Conservation agriculture aims to achieve sustainable and profitable agriculture and subsequently aims at improved livelihoods of farmers through the application of the three conservation agriculture principles: minimal soil disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotations. Conservation agriculture holds tremendous potential for all sizes of farms and agro-ecological systems, but its adoption is perhaps most urgently required by smallholder farmers, especially those facing acute labour shortages. It is a way to combine profitable agricultural production with environmental concerns and sustainability and it has been proven to work in a variety of agro-ecological zones and farming systems. It has been perceived by practitioners as a valid tool for Sustainable Land Management (SLM).
Constructed wetlands are lined shallow ponds filled with some sort of filter material (substrate), usually sand, gravel, rock or soil, and planted with vegetation tolerant of saturated conditions (e.g. reeds) forming a wetland. They are used as secondary treatment facilities for household (blackwater or greywater, in some cases also brownwater) and/or municipal or industrial wastewater. Wastewater is introduced into the basin and flows over the surface or through the substrate (horizontally or vertically). At the end of the basin, the water is discharged through a structure which controls the depth of the wastewater in the wetland. During its passage, the wastewater will come into contact with a network of aerobicanoxic and anaerobic zones and is filtered by microbial degradation and physical and chemical processes. Synonyms: Constructed Treatment Wetland, CW, Planted Filter, Reed Bed, Wetpark
Contact time is the product of the residual concentration of disinfectant (C), measured in mg/L at the outlet of the contact chamber, and the disinfectant contact time (T), measured in minutes. Contact time is increased when either the disinfectant concentration or the disinfectant contact time are increased, indicating a higher level of disinfection. The CT values required to achieve the necessary inactivation will depend on the microorganism targeted, pH, and temperature. Synonyms: CT
Continuous stirred tank reactors are reactors, in which there is a constant in- and out-flow and the content is completely mixed. Complete mixing occurs when the particles entering the tank are dispersed immediately throughout the tank. The particles leave the tank in proportion of their statistical population. The reactors can be round or square as long as the contents of the tanks are uniformly and continuously distributed. Synonyms: CSTR
Contour bunds are bunds constructed along the contour lines. They are usually made of stones or soil (sometimes in variation with crop remains). They are constructed along a contour in order to best slow the water flowing down the slope, which increases the green water pool of the soil and prevents erosion. Synonyms: Bunds
Combined sewers collect blackwater, greywater and stormwaterrunoff in one and same single pipe system. Combined sewers provoke the pollution of slightly polluted water by mixing it with heavily polluted water. This particularly results in environmental pollution when sewers overflow during heavy rain periods. As combined sewers need to be large, they can also be more expensive to install. Today, combined sewers are perceived as obsolete and in newer construction, separated sewer systems are installed instead, although many systems remain combined as the replacement of an existing systems would be too expensive. Synonyms: Combined Sewer, Combined Sewer System, Combined Sewerage, Conventional Sewer, Conventional Sewerage
Cooling towers are one of the most common water recycling technologies in use by industry today. By taking advantage of water’s high heat of evaporation, cooling towers offer effective and relatively inexpensive cooling for a wide range of industrial uses. 2/3 industrial water is used for cooling water (removal of heat). In some industries such as electric power plants or oil refineries, even up to 90% of intake water is used for cooling. Cooling water is easy to treat and sometimes even of quite a good quality. It can therefore easily be reused for example for washing processes. However, once used for washing and eventually contaminated, an appropriate treatment system before reuse is required.
Cooling water is the water used in industry to remove heat from processes. 2/3 industrial water is used as cooling water (removal of heat). In some industries such as electric power plants or oil refineries, even up to 90% of intake water is used as cooling. Cooling water is often not much polluted and can easily be reused for instance for cleaning processes. The heat, stored in the water after cooling can also be reused in other industrial or agricultural processes that require heating instead of cooling.
Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate Social Responsibility does not have one particular definition. Some define it as operating in a manner that meets or exceeds the ethical, legal, commercial and public expectations that society has of business; whereas other define it as doing business in an ethical way that respects people, society and the environment.
The objective of valuing costs and benefits is to understand their relation and compare them in monetary units, in order to utilise these operationalized benefits for better advocacy and decision-making.
With Tools to Create an Enabling Environment you take care of a sound framework for sustainable sanitation and water management. A functioning enabling environment is the precondition for the implementation any other software or hardware tools. Certain basics such as a legal or institutional framework, sound enforcement bodies and human skills need to be developed before you can implement any other measures.
Crop rotation is a practice of growing different crops on the same land in a regular recurring sequence. It means the planned order of specific crops planted on the same field. It also means that the succeeding crop belongs to a different family than the previous one. The planned rotation may vary from 2 or 3 years to longer period. Rotation of crops is not only necessary to offer a diverse "diet" to the soil microorganisms, but as they are rooting at different soil depths hence are capable to explore the different soil layers for nutrients.