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Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA)
DANIDA is part of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark Synonyms: DANIDA
Decentralisation describes the transfer of central government powers, competences and resources to the local government, closer to the people and/citizen. The concept can also be applied to infrastructures (e.g. decentralised wastewater treatments). Synonyms: Decentralization
Decentralised supply systems offer the possibility to provide safe drinking water where centralised supply systems are not feasible for economic or political reasons (e.g. in rural communities or informal settlements). Decentralised water supply refers to the small-scale purification and distribution o water. The decentralised treatment systems fall into three main categories: point-of-use systems (POU), point-of-entry systems (POE), and small-scale systems (SSS). POU and POE systems are designed for individual households while SSS can provide for community water supply, for emergency water supply in camps, or to purify water for sale in water kiosks. The choice of decentralised supply system depends on the local context and includes such factors as ease of use, maintenance needs, dependence on other utilities (e.g. electricity, fuel supply), and cost. Synonyms: Decentralised Water Supply
Deep dug wells are dug wells over 20 metres in depth, thus, unlikely to get contaminated but costly to construct.
Deep shafts are enhanced biological wastewater treatment systems. They are based on the process of activated sludge systems but particularly adapted where land is in short supply. Oxygen is injected into a return sewage stream, which is injected into the base of a deep columnar tank buried in the ground. As the sewage rises the oxygen forced into solution by the pressure at the base of the shaft breaks out as molecular oxygen providing a highly efficient source of oxygen for the microorganisms contained in the activated sludge. The rising oxygen and injected return sludge provide the physical mechanism for mixing. Mixed sludge and wastewater is decanted at the surface, the sludge is again enriched in oxygen while the supernatant continuously flows out of the system. The efficiency of deep shaft treatment can be high but they require high skilled labour for both, construction and operation and maintenance and large amount of energy.
A deep well is a hand-dug water well ranging more than 7m in depth and about 1.5m in diameter.
Definition of Boundaries
Setting clear boundaries is an important step in the development of any project. It makes it possible to stay focused on a specific area.
Dehydration of Faeces
Dehydration by adding dry organic material (e.g. in UDDTs) and long-term storage at high ambient temperature is the simplest treatment in order to transform faeces into a product that is safe for reuse or disposal. Dehydration can take place either on-site in a dehydration vault (e.g. double-vault UDDTs) or be done off-site in dehydration beds or bags protected from humidity. Simple storage at ambient conditions (temperature, pH and moisture) can require several years for pathogens to die-off. Increase of temperature, pH (alkaline treatment) and minimisation of the moisture content can significantly accelerate the process. Clever design and ventilation will increase temperature and decrease moisture content thereby enhancing the drying process. The addition of lime, ash or sawdust will raise pH (addition of lime and ash) and absorb humidity (sawdust).
Creating demand is essential to achieve that newly developed approaches and technologies actually come in to use.
Demand Creation Introduction
Creating demand is essential to achieve that newly developed approaches and technologies actually come in to use. Synonyms: Demand Creation, Demand Creation Tools
DNA is a nucleic acid present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is self-replicating and contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of the cells. Synonyms: DNA
Diarrhoea is the passage of loose or liquid stools more frequently than is normal for the individual. It is primarily a symptom of gastrointestinal infection. Depending on the type of infection, the diarrhoea may be watery (for example in cholera) or passed with blood (in dysentery, for example). Diarrhoea is caused by a variety of microorganisms including viruses, bacteria and protozoan.
Dioxins are a class of chemical contaminants that are formed during combustion processes such as waste incineration, forest fires, and backyard trash burning, as well as during some industrial processes such as paper pulp bleaching and herbicide manufacturing. The most toxic chemical in the class is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD). The highest environmental concentrations of dioxin are usually found in soil and sediment, with much lower levels found in air and water. Humans are primarily exposed to dioxins by eating food contaminated by these chemicals. Synonyms: Dioxin, PCDD, PCDDs, PCDD’s
In direct groundwater recharge water moves from storage above-ground (e.g. a spreading basin or ditch) to the aquifer via soil percolation. Most of the existing large-scale artificial recharge schemes in Western countries make use of this technique. In general direct surface recharge systems based on percolation have relatively low construction costs and are easy to operate and maintain.
The use of chemical disinfectants in water treatment usually results in the formation of chemical by-products, some of which are potentially hazardous. If chlorination is practised, the trihalomethanes, of which chloroform is the major component, are likely to be the main disinfection by-products, together with the chlorinated acetic acids in some instances. However, the risks to health from these by-products are extremely small in comparison with the risks associated with inadequate disinfection, and it is important that disinfection should not be compromised in attempting to control such by-products. Synonyms: CDBP, CDBPs
The concentration of oxygen dissolved in water, expressed in mg/l or as percent saturation, where saturation is the maximum amount of oxygen that can theoretically be dissolved in water at a given altitude and temperature.
The dissolved oxygen (DO) is oxygen that is dissolved in water. The oxygen dissolves by diffusion from the surrounding air; aeration of water that has tumbled over falls and rapids. Synonyms: Dissolved O2
Distributed Energy Resource
Distributed energy resource (DER) systems are small-scale power generation technologies (typically in the range of 3 kWe to 10000 kWe) used to provide an alternative to or an enhancement of the traditional electric power system. Synonyms: DER
Double pit latrines are latrines with several pits used in alternation. By constructing twin pits, it is possible to dig out a filled pit only after it has stood for a while (approximately one year) allowing the faecal matter to degrade while the other pit is put in use. Thus smell and the health risk during excavation will be reduced. Synonyms: Twin-pit Latrine, Twin-pit Toilet
The addition of particular substances, e.g. natural clay, bentonite, organic polymers, air, foam, fibres, fresh cow-dung, to drilling water increases viscosity and hence improves removal of cuttings and stabilises the borehole.
Freshwater that is chemically and biologically safe for human consumption, naturally or by purification. Synonyms: Potable Water
In drip irrigation, water flows through a filter into special drip pipes, with emitters located at different spacing. Water is discharged through the emitters directly into the soil near the plants through a special slow-release device. If properly designed, installed, and managed, drip irrigation may help achieve water conservation by reducing evaporation and deep drainage as compared to other types of irrigation such as flood or overhead sprinklers since water can be more precisely applied to the plant roots.