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Click one of the letters above to advance the page to terms beginning with that letter.
An icebreaker is a facilitation exercise intended to help a group to begin the process of forming themselves into a team. Icebreakers are commonly presented as a game to "warm up" the group by helping the members to get to know each other. They often focus on sharing personal information such as name, hobbies, etc. Icebreakers can be very useful in trainings and can contribute to a better training outcome. On the one hand, icebreakers can be implemented to helping people to integrate and connect with one another in a group environment and arouse the participants’ attention. On the other hand, they can create an inspiring learning atmosphere, improve the group dynamic and enhance the cooperation and participation among the learners.
ICRA Management Consulting Services
ICRA Management Consulting Services Synonyms: ImaCS
Imhoff-tanks work similar to communal septic tanks. Very effective sedimentation of solids occurs in the upper settling compartments. Sludge sinks through the slot to the bottom of the settling compartment into the lower tank, where it is decomposed. This process generates biogas, which is deflected by the baffles to the gas vent channels to prevent it from disturbing the settling process. Synonyms: Emscher tank, Emscherbrunnen
The immediate or acute emergency phase describes the first period following an event. Estimation of the duration of the immediate emergency phase varies from one to four weeks (DAVIS & LAMBERT 2002) to several weeks up to three months (HARVEY 2007) after the event. The exact duration depends on the event and the context of the emergency. They are not time-bound but rather depend on the achievement of set targets (indicators). Synonyms: Acute Emergency Phase
These are tools that support the implementation of projects: starting from conceptualising, to funding, to project management tools.
Improved Drinking Water Sources
As defined by the Joint WHO & UNICEFMonitoring Programme (JMP), an improved drinking-water source is one that by the nature of its construction adequately protects the source from outside contamination, in particular with faecal matter. These include: Piped water connection into dwelling, yard or plot; Public tap or standpipe; tube well or borehole; protected dug well; protected spring; rainwater collection. Synonyms: Improved Drinking Water, Improved Drinking-Water, Improved Water Source
As defined by the Joint WHO & UNICEFMonitoring Programme (JMP), an improved sanitation facility is one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact and therefore reduces the risk of faecal-oral transmission to its users and the environment. As defined by JMP, IMPROVED sanitation facilities include: Flush or pour-flush toilets to piped sewer systems; septic tanks, pit latrines, VIP latrines, pit latrine with slab, or composting toilets. UNIMPROVED Sanitation facilities include: Shared facilities of any type, no facilities (bush or field); flush or pour-flush to elsewhere (that is, not to piped sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine); pit latrines without slab / open pits, bucket systems; hanging toilet or hanging latrine. The definition is received not without criticism, for instance because there is no reference to further treatment of the contents of the toilets.
In situ rainwater harvesting techniques are water catchment methods located within cropland. This is achieved by allowing rainwater to infiltrate into the soil and preventing water runoff. Ex situ systems on the other hand are located outside the field.
In-situ emergency response is addressed to people staying in or close to their homes after an emergency situation. Earthquakes or an urban flooding event could for instance induce an emergency response for an in-situ target population where people stay in or around their homes.
Industrial symbiosis (as parallel to biological symbiosis) describes the formation of long-term partnerships and work in solidarity of different industries in order to enhance both environmental performance and competitive capacity by exchanging and optimising mutual flows of material, energy and water through systems at different scales, from products to factories and up to national and global levels. Typical examples of industrial symbiosis are exchange of a variety of by-products that become feedstocks in other processes or cooling water, whose heat can be recovered in aquaculture (e.g. fishponds).
Huge basins or ponds are used for collecting water for direct surface groundwater recharge via percolation. For effective artificial recharge highly permeable soils are suitable, but a water layer should always be maintenaned to ensure good infiltration. High turbidity of the water used for recharge can lead to clogging of the soil layer. Synonyms: Spreading Basin
Influent is the general name for a liquid that enters into a place or process; the effluent of one process is the influent of the next.
The term “informal” in the water and sanitation sector refers to all types of water and sanitation related activities, which are not operating in the legal framework of water and sanitation management in a given area.
Information, education and communication (IEC) is a term often used to denominate strategies, approaches and methods that enable individuals as well as groups to play active roles in developing projects. IEC is a strategy that aims at enabling stakeholders to understand and reflect approaches and select those ones that best suit their needs.
An inspection chamber is smaller than a manhole and is necessary to maintain the sewer system (e.g. cleaning, flushing the system). It is normally installed at a junction where several pipes are connected or where small diameter pipes are connected to pipes with a bigger diameter. The settled sludge in inspection chambers must be emptied periodically to prevent overflowing. Inspection chambers also function to attenuate peak discharges into the system. Synonyms: Junction Chamber
Integrated Water Resources Management is a concept to deliver a required quantity of water with an admissible quality to the required place in the specified time using organisational and technological frameworks and other resources in a sustainable manner. A system that bases on accounting all potential water sources, on hydrographic methods, and rational water resource use, coordinating inter-sectoral interests and all levels of water use hierarchy, widely involving all water users. It ensures ecological security and sustainable water supply to society and nature. Synonyms: IWRM
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high temperature and gases under pressure, which are produced by the combustion, directly applies force to a movable component of the engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades and by moving it over a distance, generate useful mechanical energy which can be transformed into electricity in a turbine.
Internally displaced persons (also known as DPRE in many civil and military organizations) are persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalised violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognised state border (they thus do not fall within the current legal definition of a refugee). Synonyms: DPRE, IDP
Intestinal worms infect about 10 per cent of the population in the developing world and, depending upon the severity of the infection, lead to malnutrition, anaemia or retarded growth. Children are particularly susceptible and typically have the largest number of worms. About 400 million school-age children are infected by roundworm, whipworm and/or hookworm. In fact, roundworm and whipworm alone are estimated to affect one-quarter of the world’s population. People become infected with intestinal parasitic worms (also known as helminths) through contact with soil that has been contaminated with human faeces from an infected person, or by eating contaminated food. Synonyms: Schistosomiasis