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Click one of the letters above to advance the page to terms beginning with that letter.
An aquatic plant large enough to be readily visible to the naked eye. Its roots and differentiated tissues may be emergent (reeds, cattails, bulrushes, wild rice), submergent (water milfoil, bladderwort) or floating (duckweed, lily pads).
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a concept that seeks to deliberately increase the amount of water stored in an aquifer, which is then recovered by pumping. MAR comprises a large number of injection-recovery techniques. By storing water underground, loss of water to evaporation can be drastically reduced and the water savings returned to other users such as the environment, towns or irrigators. MAR offers several advantages when compared with the more traditional use of surface water reservoirs, the total volume of water that could be stored in aquifers worldwide is several orders of magnitude greater than that available in surface dams. MAR is often used as a synonym for “artificial groundwater recharge” (including recharge from the surface and from below the surface) despite the fact that it is not an artificial recharge of aquifers but a well controlled measure to replenish depleted and over-exploited aquifers. Synonyms: MAR
Marginal cost represents the change in total cost that arises when the quantity produced is changed by one unit. In short, it is the cost of one additional unit of a good. The marginal cost may vary with volume or with each level of production.
MCL's were defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the United States and refer to the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLG's are used as benchmarks for MCL's taking into account best available treatment technology and costs. Synonyms: MCL
MCLG's were defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the United States and refer to the level of a contaminant in drinking water up to which no health risks are known or expected. MCLG's are non-enforceable public health goals that allow for a minimum safety margin. Synonyms: MCLG
Non-consumptive water uses where the kinetic energy of flowing water is used to drive machinery to do work such as grinding, milling, water pumping, water lifting, natural resource extraction, and small-scale manufacturing. There are numerous technologies that can be employed for mechanical water use.
Mechanised Water Pumps
Mechanised pumps (as opposed to human powered water pumps) are water-lifting devices, which may be driven by various power sources: electricity, fuels, animals, wind power, solar power, and gravity.
Metropolitan area with more than 10 million inhabitants. Synonyms: Megacities
A pliable, sheet-like structure acting as a boundary, lining, or partition. Can be used for filtration. Depending on the pore size, different qualities of filtration can be reached.
Menstruation is the natural part of the reproductive cycle in which blood from the uterus exits through the vagina. It is a completely normal process and not an illness. Menstruation is also called a girls/woman’s “period”. It usually lasts between three and seven days. Menstruation happens for most women about once a month. It is a sign that a girl can now become pregnant. Just as some girls begin puberty earlier or later than others, the same applies to periods. Some girls may begin to menstruate as early as age nine or 10, and some may not get their first period until a few years later. Menstruation usually stops in the forties, known as the menopause. Bleeding from the vagina is the primary sign of menstruation. Some girls have other symptoms around the time of menstruation, including cramping, bloating, and sore breasts, food cravings, mood swings and irritability, headache and fatigue. Synonyms: Menstrual period
Management (MHM) focuses on practical strategies for coping with monthly periods.
MHM refers to ways women keep clean and healthy during menstruation and how they acquire, use and dispose of blood-absorbing materials. Synonyms: MHM
Methylene blue active substances. Indicate the presence of detergents (anionic surfactants) in a sample (in mg/l). When methylene blue dye reacts with synthetic anionic detergent compounds, the solution of this substance will turn blue. In wastewater, LAS amounts to about 75% of the MBAS. Synonyms: MBAS
Micro basins are small rainwater catchment pools surrounded on all sides by stonewalls or earth ridges. This allows storing rainwater and using it for small-scale tree and bush planting, enabling increased growth of plants if there is moisture deficit. Synonyms: Negarim
Microcatchments are contoured areas concentrating and infiltrating rainwater. Therefore, more water is protected from evaporation and available for plants.
A kind of low-pressure membranefiltration process in which contaminants are removed from a fluid (liquid & gas) by passage through a microporous membrane (typically with a pore size of 0.1 to 10 micrometres).
Metric unit for linear dimensions. One micron or micrometer corresponds to 0.000001 m or 1x10^-6 m. Synonyms: Micrometer, Micrometre, um
Any cellular or non-cellular microbiological entity capable of replication or of transferring genetic material (e.g., bacteria, viruses, protozoa, algae or fungi). Synonyms: Micro Organism, Micro-organism, Microbe
Pollutant that despite their extremely low concentration have an significant effect (e.g., trace organic compounds) Pharmaceuticals and hormones are two groups of micropollutants which are causing increasing concern for their effects on the endocrine system and sexual development of aquatic animals.
The term Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region describes a loosely defined, transcontinental region that stretches around the Mediterranean Sea from Morocco to Iran. While there is no common definition of the region, the World Bank draws the boundaries around the following states and territories: Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, West Bank and Gaza and Yemen. Synonyms: MENA
The "Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response" reflect the "determination of agencies (involved in emergency responses) to improve, both the effectiveness of their assistance and their accountability to their stakeholders” (THE SPHERE PROJECT 2011). Since their creation in the 90’s, the Sphere Standards have “today been applied as the de facto standards in humanitarian response in the 21st century” (THE SPHERE PROJECT 2011). The third edition was published in 2011. Synonyms: SPHERE Standards
Moisture control in SSWM refers to the use of adapted methods of agriculture and forestry in order to minimise the loss of water from the soil.
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
MCFCs are high-temperaturefuel cells that use electrolytes composed of a molten carbonate salt mixture suspended in a porous, chemically inert ceramic matrix of beta-alumina solid electrolyte. Synonyms: MCFC
Monitoring describes the immediate and systematic logging, observation and controlling of a process by the mean of technical appliance. Monitoring is a repetitive and continuous process in order to analyse the evaluation of the process and draw conclusions. The aim of monitoring is to intervene into the process in order to optimise performance and to make sure that it takes the wanted course.
Motorized emptying and transport refers to a vehicle equipped with a motorized pump and a storage tank for emptying and transporting faecal sludge and urine. Humans are required to operate the pump and manoeuvre the hose, but sludge is not manually lifted or transported. Synonyms: Motorized Emptying and Transport
Municipal solid waste is all kind of waste generated by households (domestic wastes) and commercial establishments. The collection and safe treatment of municipal solid waste is a key factor of sanitation and improved health of citizens. In general the management of municipal solid waste includes its collection by the municipality or another governmental body and its appropriate treatment or reuse. Synonyms: MSW, Urban Solid Waste