Glossary

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Macrophyte
An aquatic plant large enough to be readily visible to the naked eye. Its roots and differentiated tissues may be emergent (reeds, cattails, bulrushes, wild rice), submergent (water milfoil, bladderwort) or floating (duckweed, lily pads).
Man-made Reservoir
Reservoirs are man-made water-bodies, usually formed by constructing a dam across a flowing river. Synonyms: Artificial Lake, Man-Made Water Reservoir, Reservoir
Managed Aquifer Recharge
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a concept that seeks to deliberately increase the amount of water stored in an aquifer, which is then recovered by pumping. MAR comprises a large number of injection-recovery techniques. By storing water underground, loss of water to evaporation can be drastically reduced and the water savings returned to other users such as the environment, towns or irrigators. MAR offers several advantages when compared with the more traditional use of surface water reservoirs, the total volume of water that could be stored in aquifers worldwide is several orders of magnitude greater than that available in surface dams. MAR is often used as a synonym for “artificial groundwater recharge” (including recharge from the surface and from below the surface) despite the fact that it is not an artificial recharge of aquifers but a well controlled measure to replenish depleted and over-exploited aquifers. Synonyms: MAR
Manhole
A manhole is the top opening to a sewer system. A person can enter it to maintain the sewer. If it is not in use, it is covered with a cap to avoid injuries.

Manual Pit Emptying Technology
A MAPET (Manual Pit Emptying Technology) system comprises a hand-pump connected to a vacuum tank mounted on a pushcart. A hose connected to the tank is used to suck sludge from a pit. When the hand pump is turned, air is sucked out of the vacuum tank and sludge is sucked up into the tank. Depending on sludge consistency, MAPET can pump the sludge from a maximal depth of 3 m. Synonyms: MAPET
Abbreviation: MAPET

Marginal Cost
Marginal cost represents the change in total cost that arises when the quantity produced is changed by one unit. In short, it is the cost of one additional unit of a good. The marginal cost may vary with volume or with each level of production.
Mass-burn Incinerator
A type of incinerator in which solid waste is burned without prior sorting or processing. Synonyms: Mass Burn Incinerator
Maximum Contaminant Level
MCL's were defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the United States and refer to the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLG's are used as benchmarks for MCL's taking into account best available treatment technology and costs. Synonyms: MCL
Abbreviation: MCL
References:
http://water.epa.gov
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
MCLG's were defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the United States and refer to the level of a contaminant in drinking water up to which no health risks are known or expected. MCLG's are non-enforceable public health goals that allow for a minimum safety margin. Synonyms: MCLG
Abbreviation: MCLG
References:
http://water.epa.gov
Mechanical uses
Non-consumptive water uses where the kinetic energy of flowing water is used to drive machinery to do work such as grinding, milling, water pumping, water lifting, natural resource extraction, and small-scale manufacturing. There are numerous technologies that can be employed for mechanical water use.

Mechanised Water Pumps
Mechanised pumps (as opposed to human powered water pumps) are water-lifting devices, which may be driven by various power sources: electricity, fuels, animals, wind power, solar power, and gravity.

Megacity
Metropolitan area with more than 10 million inhabitants. Synonyms: Megacities

Membrane
A pliable, sheet-like structure acting as a boundary, lining, or partition. Can be used for filtration. Depending on the pore size, different qualities of filtration can be reached.

Membrane Bioreactor
Membrane bioreactors combine conventional biological treatment (e.g. activated sludge) processes with membrane filtration to provide an advanced level of organic and suspended solids removal. Synonyms: MBR
Abbreviation: MBR
References:
Membrane Bioreactors
Menstruation
Menstruation is the natural part of the reproductive cycle in which blood from the uterus exits through the vagina. It is a completely normal process and not an illness. Menstruation is also called a girls/woman’s “period”. It usually lasts between three and seven days. Menstruation happens for most women about once a month. It is a sign that a girl can now become pregnant. Just as some girls begin puberty earlier or later than others, the same applies to periods. Some girls may begin to menstruate as early as age nine or 10, and some may not get their first period until a few years later. Menstruation usually stops in the forties, known as the menopause. Bleeding from the vagina is the primary sign of menstruation. Some girls have other symptoms around the time of menstruation, including cramping, bloating, and sore breasts, food cravings, mood swings and irritability, headache and fatigue. Synonyms: Menstrual period
Menstruation Hygiene Management
Menstruation Hygiene Management (MHM) focuses on practical strategies for coping with monthly periods. MHM refers to ways women keep clean and healthy during menstruation and how they acquire, use and dispose of blood-absorbing materials. Synonyms: MHM
Mesophile
A mesophile is an organism that grows best in moderate temperature, neither too hot nor too cold (typically between 15 and 40 °C). The term is mainly applied to microorganisms. It is also used to describe mesophilic anaerobic digestion, which takes place optimally around 37 to 41 °C or at ambient temperatures between 20 to 45 °C, where mesophiles are the primary microorganisms present. Synonyms: Mesophilic
Mesophilic Composting
Mesophilic composting (in opposition to thermophilic composting) is an aerobic microorganism-driven decomposition of organic matter at low temperatures (the mesophilic range). Mesophilic bacteria thrive from 20 to 30 degrees celsius, but just survive at temperatures above 40). In many backyard compost piles, these mid range bacteria do most of the work. However, if conditions are right they produce enough heat to activate the thermophilic bacteria (see also thermophilic composting). See also: Thermophilic Composting Synonyms: Low-temperature Composting

Methane
A colourless, odourless, flammable, gaseous hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH4. Methane is present in natural gas and is the main component (50-75%) of biogas that is formed by the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter.
Methanogenesis
Methanogenesis is the fourth and final step of anaerobic digestion. Methanogenic bacteria (methanogens), which are strictly anaerobic, transform the acetic acid (acetate), carbon dioxide and hydrogen into a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide (biogas) Synonyms: Biomethanation

Methylene blue active substances
Methylene blue active substances. Indicate the presence of detergents (anionic surfactants) in a sample (in mg/l). When methylene blue dye reacts with synthetic anionic detergent compounds, the solution of this substance will turn blue. In wastewater, LAS amounts to about 75% of the MBAS. Synonyms: MBAS
Abbreviation: MBAS

Micro basin
Micro basins are small rainwater catchment pools surrounded on all sides by stonewalls or earth ridges. This allows storing rainwater and using it for small-scale tree and bush planting, enabling increased growth of plants if there is moisture deficit. Synonyms: Negarim

Microcatchment
Microcatchments are contoured areas concentrating and infiltrating rainwater. Therefore, more water is protected from evaporation and available for plants.
Microfiltration
A kind of low-pressure membrane filtration process in which contaminants are removed from a fluid (liquid & gas) by passage through a microporous membrane (typically with a pore size of 0.1 to 10 micrometres).

Micron
Metric unit for linear dimensions. One micron or micrometer corresponds to 0.000001 m or 1x10^-6 m. Synonyms: Micrometer, Micrometre, um
Abbreviation: um

Microorganism
Any cellular or non-cellular microbiological entity capable of replication or of transferring genetic material (e.g., bacteria, viruses, protozoa, algae or fungi). Synonyms: Micro Organism, Micro-organism, Microbe
Micropollutant
Pollutant that despite their extremely low concentration have an significant effect (e.g., trace organic compounds) Pharmaceuticals and hormones are two groups of micropollutants which are causing increasing concern for their effects on the endocrine system and sexual development of aquatic animals.
Middle East and Northern Africa
The term Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region describes a loosely defined, transcontinental region that stretches around the Mediterranean Sea from Morocco to Iran. While there is no common definition of the region, the World Bank draws the boundaries around the following states and territories: Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, West Bank and Gaza and Yemen. Synonyms: MENA
Abbreviation: MENA
References:
Countries in the Region
Minimum Preparedness Actions
MPA Synonyms: Minimum Preparedness Actions (MPAs) set the standard for generic preparedness for potential refugee emergencies, applicable whether a specific emergency risk or scenario has been identified. If adhered to, they facilitate appropriate preparedness for a ne
Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response
The "Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response" reflect the "determination of agencies (involved in emergency responses) to improve, both the effectiveness of their assistance and their accountability to their stakeholders” (THE SPHERE PROJECT 2011). Since their creation in the 90’s, the Sphere Standards have “today been applied as the de facto standards in humanitarian response in the 21st century” (THE SPHERE PROJECT 2011). The third edition was published in 2011. Synonyms: SPHERE Standards
Ministry of Energy and Water Development
Ministry of Energy and Water Development Synonyms: MEWD
Abbreviation: MEWD

Ministry of Legal Government and Housing
Ministry of Legal Government and Housing Synonyms: MLGH
Abbreviation: MLGH

Ministry of Urban Development of India
Ministry of Urban Development of India Synonyms: Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of Urban Development of the Government of India, MoUD
Abbreviation: MoUD

Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
Mixed liquor is a mixture of raw or settled wastewater and activated sludge contained in an aeration basin in the activated sludge process. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) is the concentration of suspended solids in mixed liquor, usually expressed in milligrams per litre (mg/l). Synonyms: MLSS
Abbreviation: MLSS
References:
MLSS
Modular Incinerator
A relatively small type of prefabricated solid waste combustion unit.
Moisture Control
Moisture control in SSWM refers to the use of adapted methods of agriculture and forestry in order to minimise the loss of water from the soil.

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
MCFCs are high-temperature fuel cells that use electrolytes composed of a molten carbonate salt mixture suspended in a porous, chemically inert ceramic matrix of beta-alumina solid electrolyte. Synonyms: MCFC
Abbreviation: MCFC
References:
http://en.wikipedia.org
Monitoring
Monitoring describes the immediate and systematic logging, observation and controlling of a process by the mean of technical appliance. Monitoring is a repetitive and continuous process in order to analyse the evaluation of the process and draw conclusions. The aim of monitoring is to intervene into the process in order to optimise performance and to make sure that it takes the wanted course.
Monitoring & Evaluation
Monitoring & Evaluation Synonyms: M&E
Abbreviation: M&E

Most Probable Number
Most Probable Number is a method to estimate the amount of microorganisms in a sample. Synonyms: MPN
Abbreviation: MPN

Motor
Converts electric energy to mechanical energy.

Motorised Emptying and Transport
Motorized emptying and transport refers to a vehicle equipped with a motorized pump and a storage tank for emptying and transporting faecal sludge and urine. Humans are required to operate the pump and manoeuvre the hose, but sludge is not manually lifted or transported. Synonyms: Motorized Emptying and Transport
Motorised Water Pumps
The term ‘motorised pumps’ is mainly associated with diesel- and electro pumps for water lifting.

Moving Bed Reactor
Biological wastewater treatment reactors where the biomass responsible for degradation is kept in suspensions either via an up-flow wastewater regime (in the case of anaerobic reactors for digestion) or by up-flow aeration system (in the case of aerobic oxidation). Synonyms: MBR
Abbreviation: MBR

Mulch
A material (such as decaying leaves, bark, or compost) spread around or over a plant to enrich the soil and to maintain moisture.
References:
Water Saving Tips?
Multi-cluster /sector Initial Rapid Needs Assessment
A MIRA is an inter-agency needs assessment and analysis process, from which a joint strategic plan for emergency response is developed by the humanitarian country team Synonyms: MIRA
Multiple Uses
Wastewater reuse relies on the principle that different water uses have different water quality requirements, and that wastewater is often of high enough quality for certain reuse purposes. This can include direct reuse of rainwater, greywater, or process water in industries, or of organic waste for energy or nutrients. It can also include wastewater that must be treated prior to reuse, such as blackwater, yellow water, or brownwater. Reusing wastewater can reduce water consumption as well as make use of valuable resources (nutrients, energy) contained in wastewater. Synonyms: Reuse within business, Reuse between businesses, Reuse in Industry

Municipal Solid Waste
Municipal solid waste is all kind of waste generated by households (domestic wastes) and commercial establishments. The collection and safe treatment of municipal solid waste is a key factor of sanitation and improved health of citizens. In general the management of municipal solid waste includes its collection by the municipality or another governmental body and its appropriate treatment or reuse. Synonyms: MSW, Urban Solid Waste
Abbreviation: MSW

Municipal Wastewater
Municipal wastewater generally refers to the wastewater collected in sewer systems, including domestic wastewater (black- and greywater from households) as well as effluents from institutions, businesses and industries.