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The degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object expressed according to a comparative scale and shown by a thermometer or perceived by touch. Synonyms: T
Terra Preta (literally “black earth”) is the name for the highly fertile and carbon-rich soil which has been formed by pre-Columbian native populations by incorporating large amounts of charred residues (charcoal) into the soil together with nutrient-rich material (e.g. human and animal manure (rich in P and N), waste including mammal and fish bones (rich in P and Ca), ash residues of incomplete combustions (rich in Ca, Mg, K, P and charcoal), kitchen and garden waste etc.). The charcoal black carbon, due to its polycyclic aromatic structure, is chemically and microbiologically stable and persists in the environment over centuries. Over the time, the persistent black carbon molecules get partly oxidized produces carboxylic groups on the edges of the black carbon backbones which act as a trap for nutrients in the soil preventing them from being washed out. Terra preta has a large potential for preserving fertile soils and for carbon sequestration from the atmosphere as it acts as a long-term carbon sink. Synonyms: TP
The total dissolved solids is the content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal ) suspended form. Generally the operational definition is that the solids must be small enough to survive filtration through a sieve the size of two micrometers. Synonyms: TDS
The Total Sanitation Campaign aims at improving the quality of life of people in rural areas through the creation of open-defecation-free and fully sanitised villages. The programme was launched in 1999. The campaign is designed as a demand-driven, community-led programme and is implemented by state governments. There is currently an emphasis on developing information, education and communication activities to improve attitudes and knowledge about how sanitation, safe water and hygiene relate to health. The campaign also acknowledges the role of subsidies in encouraging the poor to construct individual household latrines.
Tradable water rights are one of several market-based instruments used in water management and pollution control. In economic theory, they are increasingly seen as an efficient instrument for implementing environmental and natural resources management policies, even though they are among the most challenging means in terms of both their design and implementation.
Are you interested in becoming a trainer on Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management? Then check out the SSWM Train-the-trainers section, a specific module for trainers on how to carry out trainings and capacity development courses based on the SSWM Toolbox. You’ll learn everything you need to know to prepare, run and evaluate your own trainings: You’ll find briefs about pre-training preparations, learn more on the art of facilitation, including training methods, and know what you need to do after the training. Synonyms: T-o-T, ToT, Training-of-Trainers
Sludge and septage emptied from on-site sanitation systems needs to be transferred to (semi-)centralised infrastructures for further treatment, reuse or appropriate discharge. Transfer stations or (sometimes called underground holding tanks) act as intermediate dumping points sludge when it cannot be easily transported to the treatment facility. A vacuum truck must empty transfer stations when they are full. Sewer discharge stations are similar to transfer stations, but instead of simply being a holding tank, the stations are connected to the sewer and can be legally accessed and used for discharging septage and sludge into the sewer so that it can be transported to a (semi-)centralised treatment facility. Thus, transfer and sewer discharge stations reduce transport distance, may encourage more community-level emptying solutions and prevent illegal dumping.
THMs are chemical compounds in which three of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms. They are environmental pollutants and are known to be carcinogenic. Disinfection of drinking water with chlorine can cause the formation of THM if organic matter (THM precursors) is present. See also DBPs. Synonyms: THM
Turbidity is a measure of the degree to which the water loses its transparency due to the presence of suspended particulates.
"Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are infections caused by bacteria which are transmitted from faeces through ingestion. Clean water, hygiene and good sanitation prevent the spread of typhoid and paratyphoid. Contaminated water is one of the pathways of transmission of the disease.
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract and bloodstream. Symptoms can be mild or severe and include sustained fever as high as 39°-40° C, malaise, anorexia, headache, constipation or diarrhoea, rose-coloured spots on the chest area and enlarged spleen and liver. Most people show symptoms one to three weeks after exposure. Paratyphoid fever has similar symptoms to typhoid fever but is generally a milder disease."