BANERJEE, S.; FOSTER, V.; YING, Y.; SKILLING, H.; WODON, Q. (2010): Cost Recovery, Equity, and Efficiency in Water Tariffs. Evidence from African Utilities. Washington DC: The World Bank. URL [Accessed: 15.06.2011]. PDF
For many households, standposts managed by utilities, donors, or private operators have emerged as an alternative to piped water. Those managed by utilities or that supply utility water are expected to use the formal utility tariffs, which are kept low to make water affordable for low-income households. The price for water that is resold through informal channels, however, is much more expensive than piped water.